The Officer Involved Shootings Dashboardis an interactive data visualization of Portland Police Bureau (PPB) uses of deadly force. Deadly force is defined as any use of force likely to cause death or serious physical injury, including the use of a firearm, carotid neck hold, or strike to the head, neck, or throat with a hard object.
The deadly force incidents included in the current dashboard all involve the use of a firearm (officer involved shootings).
Data on officer demographics are only calculated for officers who deployed deadly force in the associated cases (e.g., discharged a firearm). Additional officers may have been present during the incident, including officers who were injured in the incident but did not use deadly force. Officers from outside agencies may have also been involved in the incident, but are not included in the data. All data presented only includes PPB officers who used deadly force (except for the total number of officers injured in deadly force incidents).
For more information on the PPB's policies on the use of force and the investigation procedures for deadly force incidents, see section 1000 of the Portland Police Bureau Directives manual.
This tool is built to provide custom analyses to interested members of the community. All OIS and deadly force data is collected and published as it is released by the PPB.
2. Technical Specifications
The report has been customized to work on personal computers, smart phones and tablets. For the best experience, it is recommended you use a desktop or laptop computer.
3. Visualization Walkthrough
The Officer Involved Shootings dashboard is an interactive data visualization. This interactivity allows users to filter the information based on the questions they are hoping to answer with this dataset.
Many of the visualizations and figures in the dashboard can be utilized as a filter by clicking within the charts and graphs. Multiple selections within the same element can be made by holding down the 'Ctrl' button and selecting all relevant values or click and drag your mouse cursor within the visualization. Multiple filters can be activated simultaneously by clicking among the different charts and graphs in the dashboard.
a. Cases by Year with Subject Injury Type
The bar chart depicts every officer involved shooting incident since 2010 through the present, color-coded by the injuries the subject sustained during the incident. Hover over each individual rectangle for more information on the individual case, including the number of officers involved, the average tenure of all involved officers, and the initial call type of the incident. The toolbox also contains a link to obtain more information about the case and relevant grand jury transcript (if available).
Three different elements can be utilized as filters for the chart. Clicking an individual rectangle will update the entire dashboard on information as it relates to that case. An entire year of cases can be selected by either (i) clicking on the year itself or (ii) by selecting multiple cases within the year. The severity of the subject's injury can also be used as a filter by selecting the injury type in the upper-right corner of the chart, directly above the shaded blue circle.
b. Initial Call Type
The horizontal bar chart displays the frequency of each call type that precipitated the incident. All self-initiated and dispatched (calls from either 9-1-1 or the non-emergency line) are included. Call types do not denote whether any charges were filed in the incident and only represent why an officer initially responded to the scene.
Click on one (or more) call types to filter the rest of the visualization by initial incident type. The graph will also update when other filters are applied throughout the dashboard.
c. Aggregate Statistics
The four boxes to the right of the Initial Call Type chart provide aggregated statistics for all selected officer involved shooting events. The statistics will update as selections are made and the data is filtered.
The top-left box represents the average number of officers who deployed deadly force on all selected events. Officers who did not use deadly force, but were still involved in the case, are not included in the statistic.
The top-right box counts the total number of officers injured in officer-involved shooting events. The officers who are injured are not necessarily the same officers that used deadly force. The statistic only includes cases with an officer involved shooting incident.
The bottom-left box describes the number of cases where at least one subject was injured during a deadly force event, including those with fatal injuries.
The bottom-right box represents the number of officer involved shooting incidents where the subject sustained fatal injuries as a result of the deadly force incident.
d. Additional Aggregate Statistics
The three stacked boxes below the Initial Call Type chart provide additional statistics on officer involved shooting incidents. All statistics will update as filters are applied on other charts and graphs throughout the visualization.
The top box represents the percentage of cases where officers believed the subject was armed with a weapon, based on initial information provided to the officer, visual or auditory evidence at the scene, witness statements, or other information available during the incident.
The middle box represents the percentage of subjects who were found to be in possession of a weapon at the time of the incident. This is based on evidence collected at the scene following and during the incident.
The bottom and final box is the percentage of cases where the subject discharged a firearm at officers during the incident.
e. Subject Weapon
This chart depicts the frequency each type of weapon was possessed by subjects during officer involved shooting incidents. The bar length and shading indicates the frequency for each weapon type, with darker colors representing a larger number.
Most weapon types are coded using uniform reporting standards from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). One category, "Firearm - replica", was coded as "Other" under NIBRS standards but documented to provide additional context. If a subject was not armed they are recorded under the "None" category. For instances where PPB officers assisted during officer-involved shooting events within the jurisdiction of other agencies, information that is not available or released is reported as "Undisclosed".
Each weapon type can be clicked to filter the rest of the dashboard, and the figures will also update when other filters are applied.
Demographics, including race/ethnicity and gender, are collected on both subjects and officers involved in officer involved shooting incidents. The demographics are only available for officers who deployed deadly force in each event.
The race type graphs and gender tables can each be clicked to filter the rest of the charts and graphs in the dashboard. Figures will also update when other filters and selections are made on the dashboard.
g. Subject Age Ranges
All subjects are categorized within age ranges based on their age at the time of the officer involved shooting. The bars and the average age figure in the top-left corner will update when other selections and filters are applied. The age groups can also be selected to filter other elements on the dashboard.
The toolbar, located at the bottom of the visualization, contains several buttons that assist in the analysis of the data.
Tableau is the name of the software used to create this report visualization.
The Left and Right buttons become active when the above filters are applied to the report and act as "Undo" and "Redo", respectively. They operate just like the Undo and Redo buttons in other programs such as Microsoft Word.
The “Reset” button, depicted as a left arrow pointing at a straight line, reverts all filters back to their original setting when you first visited the page. This is a great way to start with a “clean slate” after clicking several filters.
The "Share Button" is three circles connected by three straight lines. This button creates a link you can share via email or other social media platforms. If you use the filters to adjust the view, you can also share a direct link with the filters you selected.
The downward arrow connected to a rectangle allows the user to save different versions of the visualization.
- "Image" creates a .png of the report with all of the selected filters.
- The "Crosstab" and "Data" options create a downloadable version of the data powering the report. This option is not recommended for use on the dashboard's main page. For more information on how to download Open Data, refer to the next section.
- “PDF” allows users to export the report, with all of the filters you set, as a PDF. The options dialogue allows custom scaling and paper size options. When choosing to export as PDF, make sure to keep the layout as portrait and content as “this dashboard.”
- “Tableau Workbook” allows you to download a file that works with the full version of Tableau Desktop, mentioned above. This is not necessary or recommended.
- “Get the App” takes you to a download page to acquire a Free Trial of Tableau Desktop. This is not necessary, or recommended, to fully analyze and view the report.
4. Download Data
The Portland Police Bureau is a proud member of the Police Data Initiative. Open Data provides an opportunity to improve the relationship between the community and the PPB by increasing transparency, building community trust, and strengthening accountability.
The Download Open Data tab of this report was custom-built to meet the Bureau’s Open Data goals. The dataset includes one row of data per officer use of deadly force. The Open Data contains additional data points associated with the cases. To download a copy of the data for custom analyses and presentation, follow these steps:
Click on the Download Open Data tab at the top of the report.
Click on the "Download" button on the toolbar in the lower-right corner of the report. See the above section for more information on the toolbar.
Click on "Data."
A new window will pop up that shows only the first 200 rows of data. Click on the blue link that says "Download all rows as a text file."
Once downloaded, the file can be imported to Microsoft Excel or other data analysis programs.
The following is a listing of all fields available for download. Note that each row of data represents an involved officer and subject. So, in instances where multiple officers used deadly force, there will be multiple rows. Only officers who used deadly force are listed in this data.
|RecordID||Used to denote a unique subject/officer data row (e.g. if three officers used deadly force on a single subject, there will be three rows, but they will all share the same 'Case #'|
|Case #||PPB case number. Prior to the release of either grand jury transcripts (only in the case of fatalities) or internal affairs investigation results this field will be marked as 'pending'.|
|Day of Date Time||The date and time reported for the officer involved shooting.|
|Subject Name||Name of subject (not officer) involved in the incident.|
|Subject Age||Age of subject involved in the incident.|
|Subject Race||Race of subject involved in the incident.|
|Subject Sex||Sex of subject involved in the incident|
|Officer Sex||Sex of officer who used deadly force.|
|Officer Race||Race of officer who used deadly force.|
|Officer Tenure (yrs)||Number of years an officer has been a sworn member of PPB at the time of use of deadly force.|
|Any Officers Injured on Case?||Indicates whether any officers, not just the one listed for a particular row, were injured during the incident.|
|Number of Officers Injured on Case||Number of total officers sustaining injuries during incident, not just the officer indicated in the row.|
|Any Officer Fatal Injuries?||Indicates whether any officers, not just the one in the row, sustained fatal injuries during the incident.|
|Did Officer Use Deadly Force||Indicates whether officer in the row used deadly force during the incident.|
|Deadly Force Type||Method of deadly force used by officer.|
|General Location||Location name or nearest address by block where incident occurred.|
|Initial Call Type||Originating call type.|
|Was Subject Perceived as Armed?||Indicates whether the officer perceived the subject as being armed (can include any type of weapon).|
|Was Subject Actually Armed?||Indicates whether the subject was actually armed.|
|Subject Weapon Type (NIBRS)||The type of weapon the subject was armed with, using the official category as outlined in the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS).|
|Did Subject Fire Shots?||Indicates whether the subject (not the officer) fired any shots from a firearm during the incident.|
|Was Subject Injured?||Indicates whether the subject (not the officer) sustained any injuries during the incident.|
|Was Subject Injury Fatal?||Indicates whether the subject's injuries (if any) were fatal.|
|Grand Jury Transcripts link||Hyperlink to grand jury transcripts (where applicable).|
|Internal Affairs Investigation Link||Hyperlink to internal affairs investigation. Will be 'pending release' until finalized.|
|Internal Affairs Investigation Link 2||Hyperlink to additional internal affairs investigation documents (as needed).|
|Online PDF Link||Hyperlink to incident summary.|